The protection and development of Chinese traditional villages is an important issue of rural revitalization strategy implementation, and it is the premise work to study the spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors. Therefore, through the ArcGIS spatial analysis platform, using the near distance, geographic concentration index, lorenz curve, kernel density method, this paper analyzes the distribution characteristics and influencing factors of 110 Chinese traditional villages in Chongqing. The results show that: Firstly, the Chinese traditional villages in Chongqing have agglomeration in geographical distribution. Secondly, the Chinese traditional villages in Chongqing are more concentrated in districts and counties, mainly in Youyang, Xiushan, Shizhu and Pengshui counties in southeast Chongqing. The distribution is uneven in regional level, mainly distributed in the southeast and west of Chongqing. Thirdly, in terms of distribution density, the Chinese traditional villages in Chongqing form a number of significantly dense areas. Fourthly, relatively independent environment, complex terrain, rich water system, low convenience of traffic and weak social and economic provided important conditions for the formation and protection of traditional villages, but also affected the distribution of Chinese traditional villages in Chongqing. This paper hopes to provide data support and theoretical reference for the protection and development of traditional villages in Chongqing.